Anti plus monos - 'a metal not found alone') antimony was first recognized in compounds and was recorded as a metal at the beginning of the 17th century and possibly prior to this date. Properties of antimony: Name of Element: antimony Symbol of Element: Sb Atomic Number of antimony:51 Atomic Mass: 121.760. Antimony is a chemical element with the symbol Sb (from Latin: stibium) and atomic number 51. A lustrous gray metalloid, it is found in nature mainly as the sulfide mineral stibnite (Sb 2 S 3 ). Antimony compounds have been known since ancient times and were powdered for use as medicine and cosmetics, often known by the Arabic name kohl.
Antimony - a metallic element having four allotropic forms; used in a wide variety of alloys; found in stibnite. Atomic number 51, Sb. Metal, metallic element - any of several chemical elements that are usually shiny solids that conduct heat or electricity and can be formed into sheets etc. Stibnite - a soft grey mineral; the chief ore of antimony.
Antimony is a shiny gray metalloid which exists in nature as sulfide mineral stibnite. The atomic number of antimony is 51, and its chemical symbol is Sb, which is derived from the Latin term 'stibium.' Antimony compounds, commonly known by the Arabic name ‘’kohl,’’ have been used as cosmetics and medicines since ancient times.
Antimony is the 1158th most commonly traded commodity in the world, and current applications include use in lead-acid batteries. The top producer of antimony is China, which produced over 100,000 tons, followed by Russia and Tajikistan. China was the top exporter to France, Belgium, and the United States. The total amount of antimony exported in 2016 amounted to $96.3 million. Some of the world's top antimony exporters are listed below.
Top 5 Antimony Exporters
China exported approximately 37% of the world's antimony traded in 2016, earning a total of $35.7 million. This represents an 86% decrease from 2015, when the country's exports of the element totalled $257 million. In 2016, the biggest recipient of China's antimony exports was the United States (21%), followed by Japan (19%), Belgium (18%), and the Netherlands (17%). However, in 2015 the top importer of antimony from China was France. Production in China decreased in 2016 due to new environmental laws which revised the standards of pollutants in many metals mined in China, including antimony. The government of China is expected to close more antimony mines throughout the country.
India is the world's second largest exporter of antimony after China. Exports in 2016 were valued at $10.1 million, and represented 10% of total world antimony exports. The 2016 values show a 39.52% reduction from 2015, when India shipped $16.7 million worth of antimony. Best junk cleaner for iphone. Over 50% of India's exports were sent to the United States, followed by Pakistan (31%), and the Netherlands (4.7%).
Singapore contributed approximately 9.6% of the world's exported antimony in 2016, earning $9.72 million. This represents a 4.63% decrease 2015, when total exports reached $9.72 million. Singapore exported the majority of its antimony to Japan (59%), followed by Thailand (9.8%), India (9.4%), and the United States.
Mexico exported about 7.9% of the world's antimony in 2016, which had a market value of $ 7.6 million. This represents a 1.33% increase from 2015, when total exports reached $7.5 million. The majority of Mexico's exports were sent to the United States (56%), which had a value $4.25 million, while India was the second largest importer (40%). In 2015 Mexico exported 56% of its antimony to India and 40% to the United States.
The United States exported 6.4% of the world's antimony in 2016, which had a market value of 6.16 million. This represents a 52% increase from 2015, when exports totalled $4.05 million. US antimony exports were shipped to Canada (18%), Mexico (14%), China (9.0%), and the United Kingdom (7.2%).
Growth Trends and Uses of Antimony
The only country which experienced significant growth in antimony exports in 2016 was the United States, which showed a 52% increase, followed by Mexico (1.33%). China experienced an 86% decrease in antimony exports, while exports dropped by 39.52% in India. According to the United States Geology Survey (USGS), current world antimony mines are expected to be depleted within the next thirteen years, but geologists will discover more resources. Antimony is used in cable-sheathing, low-friction metals and batteries, as well as in the production of paints, pottery, glass, enamel and flame-proofing materials.
Element Antimony Atomic Number
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Antimony Atomic Number
Antimony (Sb), a metallic element belonging to the nitrogen group (Group 15 [Va] of the periodic table). Antimony exists in many allotropic forms (physically distinct conditions that result from different arrangements of the same atoms in molecules or crystals). Antimony is a lustrous, silvery, bluish white solid that is very brittle and has a flaky texture. It occurs chiefly as the gray sulfide mineralstibnite (Sb2S3).
|melting point||630.5 °C (1,166.9 °F)|
|boiling point||1,380 °C (2,516 °F)|
|density||6.691 g/cm3 at 20 °C (68 °F)|
|oxidation states||−3, +3, +5|
The ancients were familiar with antimony both as a metal and in its sulfide form. Fragments of a Chaldean vase made of antimony have been estimated to date from about 4000 bc. The Old Testament tells of Queen Jezebel using the naturally occurring sulfide of antimony to beautify her eyes. Pliny, during the 1st century ad, wrote of seven different medicinal remedies using stibium or antimony sulfide. Early writings of Dioscorides, dating from about the same time, mention metallic antimony. Records of the 15th century show the use of the substance in alloys for type, bells, and mirrors. In 1615 Andreas Libavius, a German physician, described the preparation of metallic antimony by the direct reduction of the sulfide with iron; and a later chemistry textbook by Lémery, published in 1675, also describes methods of preparation of the element. In the same century, a book summarizing available knowledge of antimony and its compounds was purportedly written by a Basil Valentine, allegedly a Benedictine monk of the 15th century, whose name appears on chemical writings over a span of two centuries. The name antimony appears to be derived from the Latin antimonium, in a translation of a work by the alchemist Geber, but its real origin is uncertain.
Occurrence and distribution
Antimony is about one-fifth as abundant as arsenic, contributing on the average about one gram to every ton of the Earth’s crust. Its cosmic abundance is estimated as about one atom to every 5,000,000 atoms of silicon. Small deposits of native metal have been found, but most antimony occurs in the form of more than 100 different minerals. The most important of these is stibnite, Sb2S3. Small stibnite deposits are found in Algeria, Bolivia, China, Mexico, Peru, South Africa, and in parts of the Balkan Peninsula. Some economic value also attaches to kermesite (2Sb2S3 · Sb2O3), argentiferous tetrahedrite [(Cu,Fe)12Sb4S13], livingstonite (HgSb4S7), and jamesonite (Pb4FeSb6S14). Small amounts are also recoverable from the production of copper and lead. About half of all the antimony produced is reclaimed from scrap lead alloy from old batteries, to which antimony had been added to provide hardness.
Two stable isotopes, nearly equal in abundance, occur in nature. One has mass 121 and the other mass 123. Radioactive isotopes of masses 120, 122, 124, 125, 126, 127, 129, and 132 have been prepared.
Commercial production and uses
High-grade or enriched stibnite reacts directly with scrap iron in the molten state, liberating antimony metal. The metal can also be obtained by conversion of stibnite to the oxide, followed by reduction with carbon. Sodium sulfide solutions are effective leaching agents for the concentration of stibnite from ores. Electrolysis of these solutions produces antimony. After further purification of the crude antimony, the metal, called regulus, is cast into cakes.
About half of this antimony is used metallurgically, principally in alloys. Because some antimony alloys expand on solidifying (a rare characteristic that they share with water), they are particularly valuable as castings and type metal; the expansion of the alloy forces the metal to fill the small crevices of casting molds. Moreover, the presence of antimony in type metal, which also includes lead and small amounts of tin, increases the hardness of the type and gives it a sharp definition. Even when added in minor quantities, antimony imparts strength and hardness to other metals, particularly lead, with which it forms alloys used in plates of automobile storage batteries, in bullets, in coverings for cables, and in chemical equipment such as tanks, pipes, and pumps. Combined with tin and lead, antimony forms antifriction alloys called babbitt metals that are used as components of machine bearings. With tin, antimony forms such alloys as britannia metal and pewter, used for utensils. Antimony is also used as an alloy in solder. Highly purified antimony is used in semiconductor technology to prepare the intermetallic compounds indium, aluminum, and galliumantimonide for diodes and infrared detectors.
Antimony compounds (especially the trioxide) are widely used as flame retardants in paints, plastics, rubber, and textiles. Several other antimony compounds are used as paint pigments; tartar emetic (an organic salt of antimony) is used in the textile industry to aid in binding certain dyes to fabrics and in medicine as an expectorant and a nauseant.
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