Html Css Template

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In our last article, we discussed the Web Components specifications (custom elements, shadow DOM, and HTML templates) at a high-level. In this article, and the three to follow, we will put these technologies to the test and examine them in greater detail and see how we can use them in production today. To do this, we will be building a custom modal dialog from the ground up to see how the various technologies fit together.

Article Series:

Html css template code
  1. Crafting Reusable HTML Templates (This post)

HTML templates

One of the least recognized, but most powerful features of the Web Components specification is the <template> element. In the first article of this series, we defined the template element as, “user-defined templates in HTML that aren’t rendered until called upon.” In other words, a template is HTML that the browser ignores until told to do otherwise.

These templates then can be passed around and reused in a lot of interesting ways. For the purposes of this article, we will look at creating a template for a dialog that will eventually be used in a custom element.

Defining our template

As simple as it might sound, a <template> is an HTML element, so the most basic form of a template with content would be:

Running this in a browser would result in an empty screen as the browser doesn’t render the template element’s contents. This becomes incredibly powerful because it allows us to define content (or a content structure) and save it for later — instead of writing HTML in JavaScript.

In order to use the template, we will need JavaScript

The real magic happens in the document.importNode method. This function will create a copy of the template’s content and prepare it to be inserted into another document (or document fragment). The first argument to the function grabs the template’s content and the second argument tells the browser to do a deep copy of the element’s DOM subtree (i.e. all of its children).

Html5 Templates

We could have used the template.content directly, but in so doing we would have removed the content from the element and appended to the document’s body later. Any DOM node can only be connected in one location, so subsequent uses of the template’s content would result in an empty document fragment (essentially a null value) because the content had previously been moved. Using document.importNode allows us to reuse instances of the same template content in multiple locations.

That node is then appended into the document.body and rendered for the user. This ultimately allows us to do interesting things, like providing our users (or consumers of our programs) templates for creating content, similar to the following demo, which we covered in the first article:

Template

Basic Html And Css Template

See the Pen
Template example by Caleb Williams (@calebdwilliams)
on CodePen.

In this example, we have provided two templates to render the same content — authors and books they’ve written. As the form changes, we choose to render the template associated with that value. Using that same technique will allow us eventually create a custom element that will consume a template to be defined at a later time.

The versatility of template

One of the interesting things about templates is that they can contain any HTML. That includes script and style elements. A very simple example would be a template that appends a button that alerts us when it is clicked.

Let’s style it up:

…and call it with a really simple script:

Of course, we can put all of this together using HTML’s <style> and <script> tags directly in the template rather than in separate files:

Once this element is appended to the DOM, we will have a new button with ID #click-me, a global CSS selector targeted to the button’s ID, and a simple event listener that will alert the element’s click event.

Html Css Templates With Source Code

For our script, we simply append the content using document.importNode and we have a mostly-contained template of HTML that can be moved around from page to page.

See the Pen
Template with script and styles demo by Caleb Williams (@calebdwilliams)
on CodePen.

Creating the template for our dialog

Getting back to our task of making a dialog element, we want to define our template’s content and styles.

This code will serve as the foundation for our dialog. Breaking it down briefly, we have a global close button, a heading and some content. We have also added in a bit of behavior to visually toggle our dialog (although it isn’t yet accessible). Unfortunately the styles and script content aren’t scoped to our template and are applied to the entire document, resulting in less-than-ideal behaviors when more than one instance of our template is added to the DOM. In our next article, we will put custom elements to use and create one of our own that consumes this template in real-time and encapsulates the element’s behavior.

See the Pen
Dialog with template with script by Caleb Williams (@calebdwilliams)
on CodePen.
Github website template bootstrap.

Article Series:

Html Css Templates Responsive

  1. Crafting Reusable HTML Templates (This post)