Sas Syntax Cheat Sheet

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I have created this SAS cheat sheet to refer while you learn. It has all the important procedures and functions which come very handy.

SAS Language

ATTRIBvarn <LENGTH=’varn-length’> <LABEL=’varn-label’>

<FORMAT=varn-format.> <INFORMAT=varn-informat.>;

Associates a format, informat, label, and/or length with one

or more variables


Indicates that data lines follow (suffix of 4 if data has ‘;’s).

DATA <dsetn <(dset-optionsn)>>;

Begins a DATA step and provides names for any output

SAS data sets. See Data Set Options for options that are

available in the DATA statement.

DO index-var=start_valueTOend_value <BYstep>;

DO UNTIL (expression);

DO WHILE (expression);

Groups a set of statements as a single unit. Note that UNTIL conditions are evaluated at the end of the loop and

thus execute at least once.

FILE filename <options>;

Specifies the current output file for PUT statements. Options include:

MOD output is appended to an existing file.

OLD output overwrites an existing file.

Sas Cheat Sheet Pdf

IF expressionTHENstatement; …. <ELSE> statement;

SAS evaluates the expression in an IF statement to

produce a result that is either non-zero, zero, or missing. If

result >0 then TRUE, else FALSE.

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INFILE filename <options>;

Specifies an external file to read with an INPUT statement. Options include:

DELIMITER DLM= delimiters

Specifies a delimiter for list input. LENGTH= variable

Names a variable that SAS sets to the length of the

current input line.

INPUTvar<=> <$> startcol <-endcol> <.dec> <@ @@>; INPUT <pointer-control> variable informat. <@ @@>;INPUT<pointer-control> variable <$> <&> <@ @@>;

Input records from the current input file, placing the values

into SAS variables.

MERGE ds1 <(doptions)> <… dsn<(doptions)>> <END=var>;

Joins observations from two or more SAS data sets into

single observations.


Writes the current observation to a SAS data set.

PUTvar<=> <$> startcol <-endcol> <.dec> <@ @@>;

PUT <pointer-control> <”textvariable format.> <@ @@>;

Writes variable values and/or text to the output line.

RETAINvariablen <initial-valuen>;

Causes a variable to retain its value from one iteration of

the data step to the next.

SET<data-set(s) <(data-set-options(s)>> <POINT=varname>

<NOBS=varname> <END=varname>;

Reads observations from one or more data sets.


SAS Data Set Options

DROP=variable(s) Excludes variables from processing. FIRSTOBS=n Specifies the first observation to process IN=variable Creates and names a variable that indicates

whether the data set contributed data to the current


KEEP=variable(s) Selects variables for processing. LABEL=’label‘ Specifies a label for a SAS data set

OBS=n Specifies the first n observations to process POINT=variable Direct observation number variable

RENAME=(oldname1=newname1 <…oldnamen=newnamen>)

Changes the name of a variable.

WHERE=(expression1 <logical-operator expressionn>)

Selects observations from a SAS data set that meet certain conditions before SAS brings them into the DATA or PROC step for processing.


SAS Procedures




VAR variable(s);





CHANGEold-namen=new-namen </MEMTYPE=(m-list);

CONTENTS <DATA=<libref.>member> <DIRECTORY>

<MEMTYPE=(m-list)> <NODS>


COPY OUT=libref <IN=libref> <MEMTYPE=(m-list)>


EXCLUDEmember-list </MEMTYPE=mtype>;

LABEL variable=’label-text’;

RENAME variablen=new-variablen;

Sas Syntax Cheat Sheet



m-list one or more of the member types that processing should be restricted to.

member-list list of members in the directory to process.

PROC EXPORT DATA=<libref.>dset

OUTFILE=”filename” <REPLACE>;



OUT=<libref.>dset <REPLACE>;

The following filetypes are the most commonly used and supported within filename by SAS:

filename.XLS (Microsoft Excel)

filename.TXT (tab delimited)

filename.CSV (comma separated value)

The SQL cheat sheet provides you with the most commonly used SQL statements for your reference. You can download the SQL cheat sheet as follows:

Querying data from a table

Query data in columns c1, c2 from a table

Query all rows and columns from a table

Query data and filter rows with a condition

Query distinct rows from a table

Sort the result set in ascending or descending order

Skip offset of rows and return the next n rows

Group rows using an aggregate function

Filter groups using HAVING clause

Querying from multiple tables

Inner join t1 and t2

Left join t1 and t1

Right join t1 and t2

Perform full outer join

Sas Syntax Cheat Sheet Printable

Produce a Cartesian product of rows in tables

Another way to perform cross join

Join t1 to itself using INNER JOIN clause

Using SQL Operators

Combine rows from two queries

Return the intersection of two queries

Subtract a result set from another result set

Query rows using pattern matching %, _

Query rows in a list

Query rows between two values

Check if values in a table is NULL or not

Managing tables

Create a new table with three columns

Delete the table from the database

Add a new column to the table

Drop column c from the table

Add a constraint

Drop a constraint

Rename a table from t1 to t2

Rename column c1 to c2

Remove all data in a table

Using SQL constraints

Set c1 and c2 as a primary key

Set c2 column as a foreign key

Make the values in c1 and c2 unique

Ensure c1 > 0 and values in c1 >= c2

Set values in c2 column not NULL

Modifying Data

Insert one row into a table

Insert multiple rows into a table

Insert rows from t2 into t1

Update new value in the column c1 for all rows

Update values in the column c1, c2 that match the condition

Delete all data in a table

Delete subset of rows in a table

Managing Views

Create a new view that consists of c1 and c2

Create a new view with check option

Create a recursive view

Create a temporary view

Delete a view

Managing indexes

Create an index on c1 and c2 of the t table

Create a unique index on c3, c4 of the t table

Drop an index

Managing triggers

Create or modify a trigger


  • BEFORE – invoke before the event occurs
  • AFTER – invoke after the event occurs


  • INSERT – invoke for INSERT
  • UPDATE – invoke for UPDATE
  • DELETE – invoke for DELETE



Delete a specific trigger